As the biggest demography and one of world’s fastest growing economy, India has exponentially grown into one of the most powerful nations in today’s world and is predicted to rise into a super power soon. But there are innumerous social, political and economic hurdles on India’s path and it indeed necessary to address each one of them to materialize this dream.
The primary challenges India face are massive poverty and underdevelopment. Even in this century for the majority in our country today, poverty and hunger are coiled to their DNAs. Rampaging poverty and chronic malnutrition are agitating a huge part of our population.
India had slipped to 94th position in last global hunger index, far below many of its neighbours, clearly pointing to the prevailing crisis.
Illiteracy is another obstacle on the India’s path to become a superpower. Consisting of 287 million illiterates, our country contributes 37 per cent of the global total. Illiteracy is indeed a result of the complex mesh of socio-economic inequalities in our country. Lack of ample awareness and education not only perpetuates the existing inequalities but also entrenches the societal mis practices.
Lack of societal unity is another significant challenge. The margins and segregations amongst the people disrupt the peace and stability of our country. Deep seated Caste based segregations and differences in our society constantly creates rifts and communal tensions in India.
Furthermore, Political utilisation of caste is increasing drastic in India. Efforts to annihilate the caste system and related discriminations have all gone futile. Improving the effectiveness of reservations and uplifting the depressed to the mainstream should be rigorously implemented to revamp the situation.
India being the second most populous country accounts to about 17.7 % of the global population. This population explosion creates heavy pressure on India’s resources. In spite of enjoying a demographic dividend and having a high percent of young population India is still not able to translate it into actual growth. This immense workforce should be cautiously exploited through education, skill development and employment.
Underdevelopment of infrastructure and mass transit system are massive challenges to India. Public transport facilities are still not up to the mark and is not able to cope up with the exponential growth of our country.
Rapid urbanisation and intractable population rise creates further pressure on the transport facilities. Only more investments in this direction can improve connectivity and make our transport system more egalitarian.
According to the World Bank in 2015, India had overtaken China to become world’s fastest growing economy. But several financial policies of the Indian government have blemished the economic fabric of a country and pushed us into ravine of economic crisis.
Covid-19 has further aggravated the issue. Imposition of one of the world’s harshest and abrupt lockdowns last year India’s economy shrank by 23.9 %. Complete absence of rigorous business and industrial activities have created tremendous economic repercussions which will persist for many decades.
Severe bilateral tensions and limited influence in the major international organisations are major challenges. This not only deprives India an opportunity to amplify its voice and influence decisions of bigger nations, but also drastically limits India’s political clout in the global stage.
In spite is been world’s biggest democracy India still is suffering from repeated encroachments in the sphere of free speech and expression. Several democratic protest against the government policies and decisions dim India’s image as a democratic country. Democratic openness has become a victim to corruption.
The pandemic has revealed the fragility and chronic under development of India’s health sector. But even before the advent of the pandemic rampant spread of viral diseases, environmental pollution and garbage accumulation had been severely exacerbating our health system. Improving health facilities and making sure that huge section of our population is offered ample access to such facilities are crucial challenges.
India will have to overcome all these adversities and correct deep fault lines within various domains to rapidly move forward on the road to become a superpower.